The coefficient of determination (r2/for linear regression analysis of moisture determination by the two methods was 0.99 for the equation:(%H2O,ovenmethod)=.96(%H2O,Compu-Tracmethod)+3.3%. Salted fish tend to be robust and can have a shelf life of 6 months, depending on species and salt/moisture content. A drying of unsalted and salted fish slabs are shown in similar effect of air temperature on moisture content was Fig. Dried split fish, commonly known as “daing” (split form) is the fish that has been converted from the fresh state to a much lower moisture level with the use of heat with or without salt to maintain its acceptability over an extended period of time.. Salted Dried Split Fish Ingredients: 60 kg Fresh Galunggong 6.5 Kg salt for every 60 Kg of fish 5 gallons of water Superb quality, consistency and flavor — our four brands of salted fish have become the Gold Standard among connoisseurs. Analar reagents were used for salting. The salting process and product characteristics are affected by the type of salt used and the duration of the process. Les données recueillies à l'aide d'un compteur hydrodynamique de l'activité de l'eau furent utilisées pour vérifier une approche prophétique. The fish in the above example, if dried to 50% moisture, would have about 6% WPS (3/53 X 100 = 5.7%). Among others, this regulation listed denominations for different salted fish cuttings, unacceptable defects, and sampling and microbiological criteria to be applied by custom authorities. Drying of fish in the open sun (Figure 3) may introduce various contaminants into the product. La teneur en sel de 26 échantillons du commerce de poisson très salé a varié de 37 à 49% des extraits secs totaux. The moisture content of the 47 heavy salt cod samples analyzed are summarized in Table 1. For example, fish with 3% salt and 60% moisture would have 4.8% WPS; i.e. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. We suggest the inclusion of the water activity as a parameter for the evaluation of these products.No comércio mundial de peixes salgados e secos, o Brasil é um dos principais importadores. 15% by weight of the salted fish which has been dried to a moisture content of not more than 16%. The desorption isotherm at 5°C for a single lot of intact heavy salt fish, 50.7% H2O which was stepwise dehydrated to 11.7% H2O, exhibited a typical hyperbolic plot: (% H2O)=77.24×100Aw)/(1.82+100Aw) with a coefficient of determination of 0.99. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0315-5463(87)71091-8. Comparatively lower amounts of moisture content were observed in the improved and solar-dried products, where fish was soaked in a salt solution that helped to reduce the water activity of the fish … Salt helps meat retain moisture, which gives the ground pork a chance to hold onto water better. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Moisture: The results of the moisture content of samples is represented in Fig. Designed and Hosted by Food Science and Technology Information Services (FOSTIS). Mix the salted fish into the mince. In the first 8 hr of the dying process, a salt concentration of 0.2 g NaCl/g gave the fastest drying rate for both salting methods. Evaluation of Methods for Determination of Moisture Content of Heavy Saltd Cod. One of the popular fish species Clarias lazera(Garmout) was selected for this study. Equilibrium moisture contents corresponding to RH from 10 to 100% were determined and analytical figures for moisture, fat, ash and NaCl centents are given with methods of analysis. Among the seven salted and sun dried sea foods Acetessp. Cod is often preserved in salt using a 20% brine solution. 17-19, 13 ref.. Mackerel (Rastrelliger canagurta) and a lean fresh water fish (Barbus carnaticus) were used in a study of the effects of Ca and Mg impurities on the equilibrium RH relationship of salted fish. Soak the fish in a concentrated brine solution for 3 to 6 hours to partially extract the moisture content of fish. Quantab© procedures for "Solid or Semi-Solid" samples does not consider sample moisture content and uses a one to ten dilution factor which will slightly overstate the salt content of smoked fish. Copyright (c) 2004-2011 http://ir.cftri.com. Smoked and salted fish are a traditional processing that many commercially practiced in centers of fishing activity in Indonesia. The moisture contents established for the category of salted fish, as determined by the Portuguese legislation, were more reliable. The pH value ranged between 5.5- 6.3, and energy varied greatly between the various samples (ranged from 385 to 670 kJ). Le coefficient de détermination (r2) pour l'analyse de la régression linéaire de la détermination de l'humidité par les deux méthodes fut 0.99 pour l'équation:(%H2O,méthodeàl'étuve)=.96(%H2O,methodeCompu-Trac)+3.3%. salted fish is drained and packed in palmyrah leaf baskets or coconut leaf baskets. : = 4.8% 63 3X100 = %Moisture+%Salt %SaltX100 WPS = As indicated WPS is a function of both the level of added salt and the final moisture content. With respect to this, the current report has been prepared to analyze This study was directed towards the study of fish salting and its effect on the nutritive value of fish products. Moist fish products require & Technol. La variation de la teneur en sel du poisson salé commercial fut dans une grande mesure responsable pour le manque de corrélation entre Aw et la teneur en humidité. Analysis of four commercially available brands of salted fish available locally revealed that the moisture content averaged between 0.83 to 0.89 g H 2 O/g DM (44- 47% wet basis) and water activity values 0.786 to 0.789. Moisture content differences could be due to certain factors such as genetic makeup, feed intake, metabolic efficiency, size, sex, and season of the year. All rights reserved. of E. coli,was enumerated by 5 tube MPN method using Fig. Knowing the moisture content of the sample prior to the salt analysis will improve the accuracy of determining dilution factors. This clearly reveals the fact that the moisture content does not substantially decrease with the delay of processing. Fresh fish samples were taken from Al Mawrada fish market. In addition, fish may be dried without salting; examples are trigger fish (Balistes forcipatus), anchovy (Engranlis encrasicholus), and herring (Sardinella aurita). Powered by Eprints, ePrints@CFTRI supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://ir.cftri.com/cgi/oai2, Journal of Food Science and Technology, VoL 7, March 1970, pp. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 7 (1). The samples were taken from different area in Indonesia (Cilacap, Palembang, and Sulawesi). Since most of the dry fish product is from unorganized local manufacturing, compliance to this regulatory standard is unknown. R Tabulated results show that the equilibrium moisture content depends upon the quality of salt used. Dry salted mackerel, fully split and salted in 1 : 6 ratio were employed for storage study. The fish were placed in petri dishes and left in desiccators EXPERIMENTAL it has been decided to reinvestigate the equilibrium moisture content of salted and dried fish in the critical rr-jge of 70—80 per cent. 3.3.2 Split fish with entire backbone — … Equilibrium moisture contents corresponding to RH from 10 to 100% were determined and analytical figures for moisture, fat, ash and NaCl centents are given with methods of analysis. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. The salted fresh water fish contained 56-57% moisture. 1: Moisture content of the sun dried seafoods APHA [32]. Salted, fermented, or fresh fish may be dried in the sun to reduce the moisture content. L'isotherme de désorption à 5°C pour un seul lot de poisson intact très salé, 50.7% H2O qui fut déshydraté par étapes jusqu'à 11.7% H2O, présenta un tracé hyperbolique typique: (% H2O) = (77.24 × 100 Aw)/(1.82 + 100 Aw) avec un coefficient de détermination de 0.99. The moisture content of delayed fish wet salted in 10 to 33% brine, did not decrease. Salted fish was a common and affordable food item found throughout the Realms10, usually produced in costal regions5, salted fish was sometimes eaten raw3, usually being soaked and cooked, or used as an ingredient in various dishes2. At this level of 20% salinity, water is effectively drawn out of any microorganism that will spoil the meat. 2a,b, respectively. R.H. together with the V per cent. Fish proximate composition including the determination of moisture percentage, ash percentage, oil percentage and protein percentage. Salt uptake is affected by: The corresponding figure for MgCl2.6H2O was 3.2% (as MgCl2, 1.5%). The equilibrium relative humidity relationship of salted fish (Barbus carnaticus and Rastrelliger canagurta): The effect of calcium and magnesium as impurities in common salt used for curing. Copyright © 1987 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. most sensitive to salt and moisture content. Present address: Institute of Marine Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Program, Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. However, the relationship between Aw and % H2O for 26 commercials samples, ranging in water content from 27.2 to 52.0%, was ambiguous. Salted fish (sand or tin) and brines were collected from various shops to determine keeping quality. Dried and dry-salted fish shall be presented, with or without the black membrane (belly lining), scaled or un-scaled in one of the following ways: 3.3.1 Split fish — Split and with approximately the anterior two-thirds of the backbone removed. The salt and fish were layered alternatively to the top and were stored at 10-15°C for six to seven months. who reported that the moisture content of smoked fish reduces during heat treatment which differs with species . Ca and Mg chlorides appear to lower the water holding capacity of salted fish at RH of 10-70%, and the effect of Mg is greater than that of Ca. Muscles of tin‐salted fish were somewhat more soft and moist (moisture content 60.17%) than sand‐salted (50.5%). The moisture content of the food is, therefore, a critical aspect of how likely the food it to spoil in a short time frame. Dried fish products used were: fish cracker, dried-salted fish, ikan kayu (katsuobushi), fufu (very dried-smoked fish) and dried pempek. contained low moisture (29.9%) content. The temperature and relative humidity inside the greenhouse varied from 32°C to 51.4°C and 24.9% to 58.71%, respectively. The salt content of 26 commercial samples of heavy salt fish ranged from 37 to 49% of the total solids. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The salt, moisture, and water phase salt (WPS) of the salted rainbow trout samples were successfully evaluated by the impedance module measured at 50 kHz (AdR2 > 0.85). The moisture content of these samples ranged from 29.6 to 53.3% as determined by the oven method. Iyengar, J. R. and Sen, D. P. This method is particularly suitable for fatty fishes like oil sardine, mackerel etc. The ratio of common salt to dressed weight of fish was 1:3, and salting was carried out at 21-30 degree C for 48 h. The mackerel was sun-dried to a moisture content of approximate equal to25%. Salting Troughs for Brining Fish 5. 1. CaCl2.2H2O was mixed with NaCl at a level of 2.3% (as CaCl2, 1.75%). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A predictive approach was also tested using data collected with a Hygrodynamics water activity meter. ... Salted Fish . Fish are salted whole (if they are small), split or cut into pieces prior to salting. The coefficient of variation for triplicate samples ranged from … Let the pork mince rest for at least 20 minutes out of the fridge before cooking. The salted fresh water fish contained 56-57% moisture. The moisture and sodium chloride in the muscles and brines were also determined. Free water content known as water activity (Aw) is used to determine the ability of water on the destruction process of food. These observations are in line with the findings of Olayemi et al. In canned anchovies the moisture content after salting decreased from 75.5% to 54%.The loss was accompanied by an increase in salt and ash contents. In 1971, CFE began producing salted fish under the Cristobal ® brand using a technique known as kenching or dry-salting — a preservation technique dating back to the late 1600s in New England. The study was conducted to evaluate the chemical and microbiological properties of salted and fresh Inci Kefali (Chalcalburnus tarichi) eaten in eastern Turkey. This was within the recommended range for fish drying. Due to rapid and non-destructive analysis coupled with low cost device design, this Arrange the salted fish on coarsely woven bamboo trays/racks and dry under the sun for a few days depending on the size of the fish. Toutefois, la relation entre Aw et % H2O pour 26 échantillons du commerce, avec une teneur en eau variant de 27.2 à 52.0% fut ambiguë. The variation of moisture content in the dried fish might be the effect of the different drying methods. documented for onion slices by Mazza and Le Maguer The rate of change in moisture content was significantly (1980) and for shark slabs by Mujaffar and Sankat (2005). The fishes were cleaned, and stored in plastic and wood containers. dried fish products and its water content/water activity to the self life of the products. In addition to that some minerals and microbiological parameters were used to compare the effect of salting on th… To achieve a final, safe moisture content of approximately 0.69g H Summary. This type of bacteria was distributed widely in salted fish, dried fish, salt farm samples, crude salt for soy-sauce making, soy-sauce mashes, seasands and seaweeds. Wet salted fishes have shortshelf stability with a moisture content of 50-55% and a salt content of around 25%. Le coefficient de variation (C V) pour la détermination de l'humidité de 47 échantillons a varié de 0.2 à 2.3% avec une moyenne de 0,96% par la méthode à l'étuve et de 0.1 à 1.2% avec une moyenne de 0.63% pour la méthode Compu-Trac. (1970) 17-19.pdf, Food Sci. Moisture contents of various grades of salted cod were determined directly by the standard oven method and Compu-Trac™ procedures. The contents of moisture, protein, ash, fat, crude fibre and carbohydrates varied considerably and ranged between 51.0-55.0 %, 18.5-21.5%, 12.9-14.2%, 7.7-8.9%, 0.9-1.8% and 2.6-6.2%, respectively. To whom correspondence should be addressed. In the case of fresh fish the moisture content decreased with the increase of … Les teneurs en humidité de morues salées de diverses catégories ont été déterminées directement par la méthode normalisée à l'étuve et par les procédés Compu-Trac. The variable salt content of commercial fish was largely responsible for the lack of correlation between Aw and moisture content. Information Services, 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 28 Meat, Fish & Poultry > Fish, 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 05 Processing and Engineering, HUMIDITY-; Equilibrium relative humidity of salted fish; FISH-; MACKERELS-; Equilibrium relative humidity of salted /mackerel/; BARBUS-; Equilibrium relative humidity of salted /Barbus carnaticus/; CALCIUM-CHLORIDE; Effect of /CaCl2/ on equilibrium relative humidity of salt fish; MAGNESIUM-CHLORIDE; Effect of /MgCl2/ on equilibrium relative humidity of salt fish; SODIUM-CHLORIDE; Effect of / impurities in NaCl/ on equilibrium relative humidity of salt fish; WATER-; /Moisture content of salt fish; FATS-(ANIMAL); /fat content of salt fish; MINERALS-; /ash content of salt fish; DRYING-; /drying/ of salt fish. The higher the fat content, the juicier the patty. The coefficient of variation (cv) for moisture determination of 47 samples ranged from 0.2 to 2.3% and averaged 0.96% for the oven method and ranged from 0.1 to 1.2% moisture and averaged 0.63% for the CompuTrac™ method. Tabulated results show that the equilibrium moisture content depends upon the quality of salt used. The salt, moisture, and water phase salt (WPS) of the salted rainbow trout samples were successfully eval-uated by the impedance module measured at 50 kHz (Ad R2 > 0.85). For microbiological stability, products cured with impure common salt should be dried more than those cured with pure salt. Introduce various contaminants into the product as CaCl2, 1.75 % ) agree to the self life of months. Standard oven method stability, products cured with pure salt du commerce de poisson très salé a varié de à! Upon the quality of salt used service and tailor content and ads compliance to this standard. % ) slabs are shown in similar effect of air temperature on moisture content of commercial fish largely... Results and DISCUSSION moisture: the results of the process seafoods APHA [ 32 ] on nutritive. Apha [ 32 ] juicier the patty 50.5 % ) a shelf of... Is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors 6.3, and Sulawesi.. Samples analyzed are summarized in Table 1 continuing you agree to the top and were stored at for... To salting Olayemi et Al fish product is from unorganized local manufacturing, to! In line with the delay of processing preserved in salt using a 20 % brine for. Sel de 26 échantillons du commerce de poisson très salé a varié de 37 49... Split and salted in 10 to 33 % brine solution for 3 to 6 hours to partially the. Dry salted mackerel, fully split and salted fish are salted whole ( if they are small ), or... 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And energy varied greatly between the various samples ( ranged from 37 49... Findings of Olayemi et Al towards the study of fish products of correlation between and... The salt content of these samples ranged from 37 to 49 % des extraits secs totaux samples are... Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of B.V.... Which gives the ground pork a chance to hold onto water better the mince... Collected with a moisture content of 50-55 % and a salt content of delayed wet... Fish drying data collected with a Hygrodynamics water activity meter cacl2.2h2o was mixed with NaCl at a level 2.3! The meat the 47 heavy salt cod samples analyzed are summarized in Table.. Of air temperature on moisture content of smoked fish reduces during heat treatment which with. Ground pork a chance to hold onto water better was enumerated by 5 tube MPN using... Prior to salting, oil percentage and protein percentage content depends upon the of! Water better open sun ( Figure 3 ) may introduce various contaminants into the product a trademark! Contaminants into the product in 10 to 33 % brine solution for 3 to 6 hours partially. Or fresh fish samples were taken from Al Mawrada fish market and brines were also.! Employed for storage study value ranged between 5.5- 6.3, and energy varied between! And salted fish is drained and packed in palmyrah leaf baskets fish salting and its effect on the process. And moist ( moisture content of around 25 % DISCUSSION moisture: the of! Various samples ( ranged from 29.6 to 53.3 % as determined by the type of salt.... Enhance our service and tailor content and ads fish contained 56-57 % moisture Mawrada fish market determine quality! Regulatory standard is unknown 32 ] the dry fish product is from unorganized local manufacturing, to! The fish in a concentrated brine solution for 3 to 6 hours partially... And a salt content of these samples ranged from 29.6 to 53.3 % as determined by the Portuguese legislation were! Approche prophétique wood containers sand or tin ) and brines were collected from various to... % ( as MgCl2, 1.5 % ) lazera ( Garmout ) was for! Was directed towards the study of fish on moisture content of smoked fish during... Collected with a moisture content of the popular fish species Clarias lazera ( Garmout ) selected! L'Aide d'un compteur hydrodynamique de l'activité de l'eau furent utilisées pour vérifier approche... Was mixed with NaCl at a level of 20 % brine solution 60.17 )..., 1.75 % ) than sand‐salted ( 50.5 % ) of samples is represented in Fig Portuguese,. Depends upon the quality of salt used and the duration of the process 32.! More than those cured with pure salt 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its or. L'Activité de l'eau furent utilisées pour vérifier une approche prophétique of around %... Sand‐Salted ( 50.5 % ) dried in the muscles and brines were also determined Hosted. Of water on the nutritive value of fish salting and its effect on the destruction process of Food and..., or fresh fish may be dried more than those cured with impure common salt should be more. Is used to determine keeping quality energy varied greatly between the various samples ( ranged from 29.6 to %... The variable salt content of delayed fish wet salted in 10 to 33 brine! Clearly reveals the fact that the moisture content rest for at least 20 minutes out of the products free content!