For instance, “the publication of the Land W, of the literature, agriculture and military history” (Starnes, 1996, p. 177). This disturbance, included one protester being run over by a car driven by a white supremacist which inflamed the, debate to remove civil war monuments. II, 663; V. Jacque Vogeli, Free But Not Equal: The Midwest and the Negro During the Civil War (Chicago, 1967), pp. 5. Three blocks from my childhood home, Mississippi’s second largest Confederate monument stands on the lawn of Greenwood’s Leflore County Courthouse. 15, Nov. 11, 1862, quoted in Eaton, Grant, p. 5. This isn’t just a Southern problem. Next, we examine the current state of removal. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. Monuments from a public policy perspective. There is much disdain for the preservation of Confederate Monuments by many organizations, minority groups, and some local and state governments. Contesting the master narrative: The, Starnes, R. D. (1996). Described as “fair skinned,” Mary served the Cameron family and, while doing so, learned to read, write, and sew (2). 94, National Archives, Washington, D.C. Stuart and other, Confederate leaders as men dedicated to freeing the South from Y. Nathans speculates that she feared being removed to a new Cameron plantation in Alabama for some apparent transgression. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. the dead, but it transitioned into a political statement as resistance toward the North” (Johnson, From an ethical standpoint, Johnson invokes the Ft. Mill dedication of honoring loyal slaves who, stood guard over their slave master’s property while the owner was away at war, mentions honoring groups outside the usual Confederate soldiers such as the Ft. Mill women’s, Other support of Confederate Monuments came from white women of the confederate that, wanted to preserve a Confederate identity, volunteers or as paid employees during the American Civil W, women’s groups to commemorate the Confederacy” (Gully, United Daughters of the Confederacy “help shape public memory in the South” by boosting the, establishment of Confederate Monuments. Heritage versus hate: A. For example, “selective and misleading versions of the past in, solid material form, through the renaming of parks, streets, monuments, and buildings that, Confederate Monuments influence decision making by the societies that create them and further, give a one-sided view of the moral and ethical decisions that are made. there are several that desire their removal. 13, quoted ibid., pp. She eventually resided with Peter and Susan Lesley where she worked as a seamstress; later on she became a caregiver to Anne Jean Lyman, Susan Lesley’s mother, in nearby Cambridge. Jones describes how the court continued to support manumission over enslavement even in the increasingly frenzied atmosphere of the 1850s when Kentucky followed the lead of other southern states in enacting measures to suppress the growth of the free-black population. Stanton to Thomas, Mar. Third, he assumes that eliminating Confederate monuments, would deprive Richmonder’s the education of the Civil W, there is a larger black population surrounding the area of Monument A, the cause of the pushback. Finally, Confederate Monuments by upholding the argument that these monuments are protected by the, first amendment of freedom of speech. First, that. Although these factors have some joint, degrees, just because a decision is ethical doesn’t make it legal, nor is a decision legal because it. Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Jacobs, and Mary Walker: For most readers familiar with American history, the first three names are recognizable. This disturbance included one protester being run over by a car driven by a white supremacist which inflamed the debate to remove civil war monuments. To rescue her children, Mary, with the aid of the Lesleys, pursued various plans, including hiring an agent, James Price, to orchestrate a slave rescue and later writing directly to Mildred Cameron. The sixth figure, standing on the monument’s pinnacle, is of Gen. Benjamin Grubbs Humphreys, who, despite being removed as Mississippi’s governor in 1868, was celebrated for … Introduction August 21On st 2017, white supremacist protestors marched in Charlottesville, Virginia purportedly to protest the city’s planned removal of a statue of Confederate General Robert E. AMA], Dec. 1863 [sic ], American Missionary (Mar. Here we will elaborate on all three. Eaton to Jocelyn, May 18, 1863, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, R.G. That is the consequences vs. the universally accepted moral, In the argument of keeping Confederate Monuments, Schedler assumes four things. There is a debate over whether to remove Confederate monuments. No official records of the camp's population seem to have survived. The passage of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850, which compelled citizens to assist in the recapture of fugitive slaves, precipitated Mary’s move from Philadelphia to Boston that November. 9. to help you with essay Hire writer In recent years, there have been many discussions between people, requesting for the removal, relocation, or replacement of monuments which represent confederate officials from the civil war. The Confederate Army commander’s likeness was the last of four monuments memorializing the insurrection to be withdrawn in a 26-day span, an action that has led to … Combine them into an argument for or against removing Confederate monuments. Regarding the prudential factor, a decision is prudential when an act is of self-regarding interests, which can also include the interests of others (Madsen, 2009). We can hardly be surprised that he … monuments, we tend to think of the meaning of their existence or the reason they exist. As the Civil War came to an end in 1865, she returned to Cambridge and finally her two children, now adults with their own families, joined her. III, Vol. The Lesley–Walker friendship is but one example of the kind of interracial friendship... Register of the Kentucky Historical Society. Largely as a. Cam Walker is assistant professor of history at the College of William and Mary. She, starts by saying, “Confederate monuments in South Carolina began as a communal way to mourn. Similar to intimidation against voting rights of minorities (Gilmore, 2013) these. You will read two sources on the Confederacy and two on the statue debate and then synthesize into an argument for or against removing Confederate monuments. D. Do Confederate monuments reflect the ethical values of today’s. 105, National Archives, Mississippi, Letters Sent, 1863, Vol. In accordance with an Anglo-American jurisprudence grounded in the primacy of property rights, the judges in these cases resisted political and social pressures to suppress such bequests. United States: Protests tar. Illustrations of the symbolic structure of the sites and ideological struggles to recognize the role of slavery as a cause for war, as well as the role of Black soldiers in the war’s outcome, may add to our understanding of U.S. race relations, both past and present. Cited hereafter as BRFAL; Olds to Jocelyn, May 16, 1863, AMA. In other words, the telos celebrates the courage, sacrifice, and leadership of their Generals, and not the racist doctrines they fought to support. The propagation of or, at a minimum, the continued consistent persistence of these monument could be direct results of, public policy endeavors at the state level such as North Carolina’s Heritage Protection, 2015 which prohibits the relocation, removal, alteration, renaming, or other disturbance of any, architecturally significant building, memorial building, memorial street, or monument located on, Contrary to conventional lore, support for the establishment of Confederate monuments was not, monuments by saying, “I think it wiser, …not to keep open the sores of war but to follow the. For descriptions of the Cairo camp, see Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin . (1) If some monument(s) unavoidably harms undeserving people, then there is moral reason to remove that monument. Secondly, we consider the past efforts to remove them. For example, the Confederate flag a top of the State Capitol in South Carolina and the monument of Jefferson Davis at the Jeff Davis Parkway and Canal Street in New Orleans (Buffington, 2017). 12. 20-23; Grant, General Orders No. One specific fatality occurred when Heather Heyer, a counter-protester, was run over in a crowd by a Neo-Nazi sympathizer, James, lit a flame in discussions and removal of civil war monuments across the country. Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials is an ongoing process in the United States since the 1960s. earlier we have discussed both the legal and ethical choices in consideration of Confederate, monuments, we have yet to review the prudential side. While she was most certainly a slave in North Carolina, an 1847 Pennsylvania law opened the possibility for her to claim legal freedom. Confederate statues hold tremendous historical value to … 13, 1863, ibid. In To Free a Family, Afro-French painter Jules Lion's antebellum New Orleans portrait of Ashur Moses Nathan and his son came immediately to mind upon reading the title of Bernie D. Jones's book Fathers of Conscience: Mixed-Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South. The above may answer the question of, is it only the inscription, on Confederate monuments that generate the homage they pay to the Confederacy that is, If local, state, and federal governments, along with private citizens decide to keep Confederate, monuments standing, then they run the risk of perpetuating bigotry and slavery, conversely, they choose to remove the statues, they will run the risk of dishonoring those that served in the, the Utilitarian vs. Kantian. Buffington, M. L. (2017). One author makes an argument that Confederate monuments should not be demonized as racist, for three reasons., subjective opinion, teleological reasoning, and protection of the first, amendment, Schedler, 2001 as cited by Rogers, n.d. That is opinion of observers that don’, understand the true meaning of the monument. Cited hereafter as Eaton, 1863 Report; Memphis Bulletin, Sept. 15, 1863; Lucinda Humphrey to George Whipple, March 7, 1863, AMA; G. N. Carruthers to [Secys. 442. 25, 1863, OR, Ser. Pierce to Jocelyn, Apr. Confederate historical monuments require accurate context to embrace all sides and learn from history. The litigation involved widowed, slaveholding white men whose substantial bequests to enslaved women and their mixed-race children were contested by white relatives. Also, the building of these monuments, creates a negative environment. That is since Confederate Monuments express freedom of, speech, they are protected by the U.S. Constitution and should not be removed from public, space. C. How do people want to remember each event? No person who fought for the right to keep humans as property is deserving of modern honor. 7. Should we remove Confederate monuments? Applying this method to the U.S. regarding Confederate monuments, 62% of Americans in 2017 approve of keeping these. Even on the surface of civil resistance to abolishing Confederate statues, several municipalities, state governments, and other public institutions have approved unilateral actions to eliminate them from civic spaces. their fundamental liberties, such as equal protection under the law” (Rogers, n.d.). reviews the Southern Historical Society and the Confederate Historical Memory (Starnes, 1996). There is a debate over whether to remove Confederate monuments. 18. Stanton to Gen. Tuttle, Oct. 13, 1862, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, 1880-1901), Ser. Morals, ethics, and integrity: How codes of conduct. Secondly, we consider the past ef, Next, we examine the current state of removal. Roof’s connection to the contentious flag by the picture and his claim, “They are taking, over” gave fuel to the fire in the resurgence of the NAACP’, call for the eradication of the flag (McAllen, 2015). McAllen, A. Schultz, J. Yet, he opposed abolition since "no act or policy of man can change the purpose of God" (p. 85). However, the Confederate flag was not, only an emblem of pride but also was known for other viewpoints predominate Southerners. Coffin, Reminiscences, p. 637. 393 National Archives, Dept. Lee was confident, building confederate war, monuments would serve as a continuing reminder of the painful divisions that persisted after the, conclusion of the war, and would ultimately serve as an obstacle to recovery, The battle to remove or oppose Confederate symbols and monuments can be traced back to the, of $7,500 for the ceremonies of the Robert E. Lee monument” (Blair, 201, effort to remove a controversial monument, a “Confederate soldier statue from 1891-1923 stood, in the center of Main Street in Greenville, South Carolina until it was moved to the cemetery due, to pushing back and bickering” (Field, 2017, p. 1). 3 Another issue with the statues are the actual subjects monumentalized. its non-distinction of ethical or prudential standards. These acts may answer the question of “why tragedies, inspire memorials and why others (such as Sullivan Island in Charleston South Carolina or Black. Assignment directions Read […] Through observation, thick description, and interviews, this work examines the contested commemoration of the American Civil War with regard to race, slavery, and collective sentiment. The Confederate monument in Montgomery County, MD, stood for a century in a position of power next to the courthouse. 13. That single phrase perfectly sums up what people across the country are attempting to convey, and expresses the main issue that many have with these statues. Pierce to Jocelyn, Apr. Influenced by the free labor ethos of the North and West and the allure of manufacturing, Kentucky developed into a farming economy of small landholders with less of a stake in slavery than the lower South states. However, if we are to remember history, “is not an attempt to obscure the truth of American history, Confederate hagiography and call on the people of goodwill to oppose the violations and abuses. Eaton, Grant, pp. Alexander and his wife had lived in Mississippi for a few years during the 1850's, so he probably had some first-hand knowledge of slavery. Eaton to Whipple, Feb. 26, 1863, AMA. 15. 9, 1863, ibid. of the Tennessee, Letters Sent, 1862, Vol. See Eaton, Grant, pp. A monument in Charlotte, N.C., erected in 1929, praises Confederate soldiers because “they preserved the Anglo Saxon civilization of the South.” It was defaced in 2015 and subsequently put in a clear protective case to prevent future vandalism. shameful aberrations or as historical monuments of valor. The removal of monuments and symbols to a racist past is an important step to a more just future. D. O. McCord and others to Alexander, Aug. 6, 1864, Alexander, Service Record. City of Greenville responds to group’s request to move Confederate statue. As a consequence, Louisiana gets scant attention in Jones's comparative cultural approach to the legal history of high-court decisions involving manumission and mixed-race inheritance in the antebellum South. Removing Confederate Monuments, The Ethical Debate, Starting with the murder by Dylann Roof in Charleston, South Carolina of nine African, American parishioners at Emanuel African Methodist, symbols of hate, bigotry, top of the State Capitol in South Carolina and the monument of Jefferson Davis at the Jeff Davis, Parkway and Canal Street in New Orleans (Buffington, 2017). The, Confederate flag also became a symbol of social viewpoints influential southerners promoted, stars represented the fifteen states that were slaveholders and the diagonal part representing a, symbol of strength and progress” (Coski, 2009, p. 5). In his essay, Diaz-Griffith makes suggestions for what should happen to Confederate monuments going forward, presenting four options: Display the monuments and memorials in museums (excluding Confederate heritage museums) where they are interpreted in the context of "Lost Cause" ideology, the Jim Crow era, white supremacy, and systemic racism Erecting Confederate monuments in the late-19th and early-20th centuries reinforced the so-called ‘Lost Cause’ myth of the Civil War promoted by former Confederates and sympathizers. Cities of the Dead: Contesting the Memory of the Civil W, Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education, No Holier Spot of Ground: Confederate Monuments & Cemeteries of, How the U.S. got so many Confederate monuments. For example, a person fighting to, monuments, people that have struggled to remove Confederate monuments without distinction to, ethical or prudential consideration are not just acting out of self-interest but the interests of, others. However, applying the legal factor to the U.S., the, constitution allows symbols of hate and swastikas under freedom of speech. Emergency Disaster Management Training Academies, To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (review), Fathers of Conscience: Mixed Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South (review), Memory Brokers, Shameful Pasts, and Civil War Commemoration, Conference: The Neely Center for Ethical Leadership and Decision Making. Against this backdrop, beginning in 1829, Clay's contemporary, Kentucky Court of Appeals Chief Justice George Robertson, a slaveholder himself, shaped the court, according to Jones, into a key institution of manumission rights for slaves. 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